Mom's Story, A Child Learns About MS

Mom's Story, A Child Learns About MS
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Sunday, June 18, 2017

New Research on Lemtrada Reveals Insights into the Cause of Potential Side Effects



Researchers in the U.K. have evaluated additional findings about the immune-system impacts of Lemtrada® (alemtuzimab, Sanofi Genzyme), a disease-modifying therapy for treating people with relapsing MS.
The team used data from phase 3 clinical trials submitted to the European Medicines Agency during the drug’s successful approval process. Some of this data was previously reported at medical meetings and in Lemtrada’s prescribing information.
Among their findings, they report that Lemtrada caused long-term reduction of specific immune cells (memory B and T cells, including regulatory T cells). They also found that the body rapidly repopulated an overabundance of immature B cells.
They propose that the blockade of memory B and T cells drives the beneficial effects of Lemtrada.  
They also speculate that the known potential side effect for autoimmune thyroid disease and other autoimmune disorders may be triggered by the overabundance of immature B cells that occurs when there are few regulatory T cells to keep them in check.
Studies like this one, which reveal more information about a therapy’s mode of action, are important and may also lead to insights about how to reduce side effects.
Drs. Klaus Schmierer, David Baker and others at the Queen Mary University of London report their findings in JAMA Neurology, published online June 12, 2017. 
Read the open-access paper in JAMA Neurology
Read about Lemtrada
Read more about treating MS

Lemtrada is a registered trademark of Sanofi Genzyme
 

Sunday, June 11, 2017

Dawson's Fingers ???




"Dawson's fingers" is the name for the lesions around the ventricle-based brain veins of patients with multiple sclerosis. The condition is thought to be the result of inflammation or mechanical damage by blood pressure around long axis of medular veins.
Dawson's fingers spread along, and from, large periventricular collecting veins, and are attributed to perivenular inflammation. 
Lesions far away from these veins are known as Steiner's splashes
Sometimes experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis has been triggered in humans by accident or medical mistake. The damage in these cases fulfils all the pathological diagnostic criteria of MS and can therefore be classified as MS in its own right. The lesions were classified as pattern II in the Lucchinetti system. This case of human EAE also showed Dawson fingers.

Tuesday, May 30, 2017

New MS Research



This month in Lancet Neurology, a Canadian research team reports there is a pre-clinical phase in MS. The study used health administration records from four Canadian provinces (British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Nova Scotia). Due to the nature of the Canadian health-care system, these provinces have computerized health-care records on >99% of
residents, including hospital discharges, physician billing, prescription on records, and dates of all medical visits – all records can be linked by a unique health-care number assigned to individuals. Using these records, medical histories for 14,428 MS cases and 72,059 controls were included for this study. They compared health-care utilization in the same five years
period prior MS diagnosis between cases and temporally matched controls.
Interestingly, five years before a MS diagnosis, the number of hospital admissions for people who eventually developed MS was 26% higher than controls, and this increased to 78% higher a year before MS diagnosis. A similar pa*ern was observed for physician billing (5 years before diagnosis:
24% higher in people with MS than controls; 1 year before diagnosis: 88%
higher in people with MS than controls). There was also a substantial increase in the number of prescribed drug classes in people with MS compared to controls (5 years before diagnosis: 23% higher; 1 year
before diagnosis: 49%  higher). These results clearly demonstrate a pre-clinical stage for MS where subtle symptoms exist before clinically definitive symptoms (also known as a prodromal stage). With further research, we can explore these subtle symptoms and hopefully diagnose MS earlier and initiate therapeutics earlier, slowing the rate of progression of MS.

From: When do MS symptoms start? By Farren Briggs PhD, ScM; The Accelerated Care Project for Multiple Sclerosis

Tuesday, May 23, 2017

Interesting Results…

Gene That Boosts Resistance to Malaria linked to Susceptibility to MS and Lupus in Sardinia

Researchers from Italy found a strong association between the gene that instructs the molecule “BAFF” and susceptibility to MS and lupus in studies of nearly 6,000 people in Sardinia. The BAFF gene is crucial to activation of immune B cells and is also associated with resistance to malaria. Malaria was common in Sardinia until it was eradicated in 1950. The rates of MS and certain immune-mediated diseases are high in Sardinia. Further research is necessary to confirm whether this high rate is related to BAFF, and whether MS could be treated by a therapy that targets BAFF.

Sunday, May 7, 2017

Interesting Results...

Gene That Boosts Resistance to Malaria linked to Susceptibility to MS and Lupus in Sardinia


Researchers from Italy found a strong association between the gene that instructs the molecule “BAFF” and susceptibility to MS and lupus in studies of nearly 6,000 people in Sardinia. The BAFF gene is crucial to activation of immune B cells and is also associated with resistance to malaria. Malaria was common in Sardinia until it was eradicated in 1950. The rates of MS and certain immune-mediated diseases are high in Sardinia. Further research is necessary to confirm whether this high rate is related to BAFF, and whether MS could be treated by a therapy that targets BAFF.

Read more about this study from the Genetic Literacy Project

Read the scientific summary of the paper in The New England Journal of Medicine

Read more about efforts to end MS forever
 
 

Novel Protein Identified Inside Cells During MS Inflammation May Help Explain Nerve Damage


Researchers from the University of Alberta in Canada report that levels of Rab32 – a protein that directs traffic between cell organs – are increased in sites of active inflammation in brain tissue obtained from people with MS and in mouse models of MS-like disease. This increase was linked to the destruction of nerve cells. If the results are confirmed, this knowledge could explain part of the neurodegenerative process that leads to progression of disability in MS and could be a target for development of effective MS treatments.

Read more on ReliaWire
Read the open access paper in Journal of Neuroinflammation
Read more about Research to stop MS in its tracks

Friday, February 17, 2017

Australian Team Finds Possible Molecular Pathway for MS Progression

Researchers from Australia report that the amount of molecules in a sequence of chemical reactions called the kynurenine pathway differs between people with MS and healthy controls, and between people with relapsing-remitting and progressive forms of MS. The kynurenine pathway is activated by chronic inflammation, and its activation may be involved in nerve damage and MS progression.  The kynurenine pathway has also been implicated in other neurological and psychiatric disorders. The MS-specific findings, and the potential use of the kynurenine pathway in a diagnostic test, will need to be explored in additional studies.

This work was funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council and Multiple Sclerosis Research Australia. The researchers used several repositories to complete these experiments – the Accelerated Cure Project for MS, The Human Brain and Spinal Fluid Resource Center (which is sponsored by the National MS Society, among others), and the Tasmanian MS Longitudinal Study.

Saturday, November 19, 2016

Two Small Studies Find Benefits of Exercise for People with MS with Moderate to Severe Problems with Movement

Summary
  • Two small studies report on the benefits of exercise for people with MS who have moderate to severe mobility impairments. This research shows the importance of physical activity in enabling people with all forms of MS to live their best lives.
  • The National MS Society provides resources on exercise for people living with all forms of MS, as well as for healthcare providers. Further information on increasing physical activity in adults with disabilities is available from the Centers for Disease Control.
Details
Background: Growing evidence suggests that exercise is good for a person’s overall health and for reducing other health conditions (co-morbidities).  Research in MS has also suggested that exercise training is effective for improving aerobic capacity and muscle strength, mobility, quality of life, and may benefit cognition, fatigue and depression. However, research is limited on exercise options for people with MS who have moderate or severe mobility impairments. Two recent, small studies begin to address this gap.

Exercise for severe mobility impairments: Investigators randomly assigned 12 people with progressive MS to receive total-body recumbent stepper training (similar to climbing stairs) or body weight–supported treadmill training. Both are used for people with severe mobility impairments, but the authors wanted to see if stepper training showed similar benefit to treadmill training, because it is significantly less costly to use and maintain the equipment. Participants completed three weekly 30-minute sessions for 12 weeks. Both training programs were safe, and although participants enjoyed both, stepper training was reviewed more favorably. There were no changes in physical function, but both reduced fatigue and improved quality of life.

The team (Lara A. Pilutti, PhD, now at the University of Ottawa, and former colleagues at the University of Illi­nois at Urbana-Champaign) has published results in the International Journal of MS Care (2016;18:221–229).

A cycling option for non-ambulatory people: Functional electrical stimulation (FES) offers people with significant weakness and mobility problems a cycling option, using low-level electrical impulses to stimulate the activation of leg muscles. Researchers evaluated whether this type of cycling improved symptoms and quality of life in 16 people with moderate to severe MS who were unable to walk. Participants cycled for 30 minutes, two to three times a week for one month. Significant improvements were noted in cycling performance, and physical and psychosocial aspects of fatigue, as well as reductions in reported pain. There were no significant changes in spasticity, cognitive aspects of fatigue, or muscle strength. Further research in larger numbers of people would help to clarify how benefits might be optimized.

The team (Deborah Backus, PhD, PT, and colleagues at the Shepherd Center, Atlanta, GA) report their results in the International Journal of MS Care (Published online, August 9, 2016).

Read More: The National MS Society provides resources on exercise for people living with all forms of MS, as well as for healthcare providers. Further information on increasing physical activity in adults with disabilities is available from the Centers for Disease Control.